SC2232 – ShellCheck Wiki

See this page on GitHub


Can't use sudo with builtins like cd. Did you want sudo sh -c .. instead?

Problematic code:

sudo cd /root

Correct code:

sudo sh -c 'cd /root && pwd'


Due to the Unix process model, sudo can only change the privileges of a new, external process. It can not grant privileges to a currently running process.

This means that shell builtins -- commands that are interpreted by the current shell rather than through program invocation -- cannot be run with sudo. This includes cd, source, read, and others.

Instead you can run a shell with sudo, and have that shell run the builtins you want. Just be aware that what happens in that shell stays in that shell:

sudo sh -c 'cd /root && pwd'  # This shows /root
pwd                           # This shows the original directory



ShellCheck is a static analysis tool for shell scripts. This page is part of its documentation.